While genetics deals with the mutations in DNA overtime, epigenetics tells us which genes become active and inactive throughout the evolutionary process. New research from Hebrew University in Jerusalem has shed light on the epigenetic differences between Neanderthals and modern humans (or Homo Sapiens.) Their findings provide possible reasons for why Homo Sapiens survived the ages while our ancestral cousins did not. Specialists at Hebrew University point to the Increased brain capacity and the heightened immune systems of Homo Sapiens as key advantages in the fight against the elements.
They also found that certain epigenetic factors continue to work to our disadvantage. For example, the diseases of autism, schizophrenia and alzheimer's, which occur commonly in Homo Sapiens had no effect on Neanderthals. To read more head to Science Daily and for more images of Neanderthals got to Science Source.