As the Syrian Civil War blazes into its third year, the world waits anxiously to see the lasting impact it will have on Syria and the rest of the Middle East. With many people dead and many homes destroyed the effect on present day Syria is clear; but the war has also had an impact on Syrian heritage. The ancient city of Palmyra, one of the great marvels of Mesopotamia stands amidst some of the war's worst fighting and now faces the threat of destruction .
Reports claim that Assad's forces have shelled the city with land to air missiles, causing severe damage to its outer walls. Additionally, looters have raided many of its halls and chambers, stealing statues and other artifacts.
Palmyra is Tadmor in Arabic, meaning "the city that rebels." This has proved an apt title for the city as it has withstood many conflicts throughout its history. Until the first century AD, Palmyra was under Syrian control and endured numerous attacks from the Roman Empire.
The city finally fell to Rome in 14 AD and experienced an era of relative stability. Eventually prosperity waned in the region and the Syrians under Queen Zenobia rebelled against Roman rule, reclaiming the city in 212 AD. During her reign, she transformed Palmyra into a great fortress, the battlements of which can still be seen today.
Her reign was short lived, however, as The Roman Emperor under Aurelian seized control of Palmyra again in 272. After the Empire collapsed, Palmyra fell into the hands of numerous empires and kingdoms, including the Byzantines in 634 AD, various Arab States, and finally the Ottoman Empire in 1516 which saw to its gradual decline and desertion. 
Palmyra has proved resilient throughout its beliguided history. Hopefully, it will remain this way and enter an era of peace and restoration when the civil war is over
-  http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2012/s3581988.htm